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UPDATE: Cryptocurrency Investing Strategy — Q2 Играйте с друзьями в лучшую Монополию онлайн абсолютно бесплатно, побеждайте соперников и станьте чемпионом! A monopoly (from Greek μόνος, mónos, 'single, alone' and πωλεῖν, pōleîn, 'to sell') exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity. This contrasts with a monopsony which relates to a single entity's control of a market to purchase a good or service, and with oligopoly and duopoly which consists of a few sellers dominating a market. Monopoly: Slovene Edition, subtitled "Hitra igra trgovanja z imetjem" (transl. "The Fast-Dealing Property Trading Game") is the original international Slovene-language version of the classic boardgame by Parker Brothers. 1 History 2 Locations and Board Layout Board Layout Locations and properties on the board Railroads Utilities Other spaces 3 Other editions translated into.

Add monopoly to one of your lists below, or create a new one. Improve your vocabulary with English Vocabulary in Use from Cambridge.

Learn the words you need to communicate with confidence. Definitions Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. Click on the arrows to change the translation direction.

Follow us. Choose a dictionary. Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. Usage explanations of natural written and spoken English.

Word Lists. Choose your language. My word lists. Forced Technology Transfer. What to Know About 5G. Net Neutrality. What Is a Monopoly? Natural monopolies can exist when there are high barriers to entry; a company has a patent on their products, or is allowed by governments to provide essential services.

Article Sources. Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work. These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts.

We also reference original research from other reputable publishers where appropriate. You can learn more about the standards we follow in producing accurate, unbiased content in our editorial policy.

Compare Accounts. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. Related Terms The Characteristics of Monopolistic Markets A monopolistic market is typically dominated by one supplier and exhibits characteristics such as high prices and excessive barriers to entry.

Next station that comes along is Glavni kolodvor transl. The main railway station which is located in Ljubljana, the capital city of Slovenia.

Station is important because of its location in the capital city. Javna razsvetljava and Mestni vodovod transl.

Public Illumination and City waterworks are the replacements for Electric Company and Water Works. There are many other editions which have been translated into Slovene language.

They are listed and described here, but as each gets its own page, only the title will remain here. Monopoly Junior Slovene version is Slovene version of Monopoly Junior edition.

For instance, persons are required to show photographic identification and a boarding pass before boarding an airplane.

Most travelers assume that this practice is strictly a matter of security. However, a primary purpose in requesting photographic identification is to confirm that the ticket purchaser is the person about to board the airplane and not someone who has repurchased the ticket from a discount buyer.

The inability to prevent resale is the largest obstacle to successful price discrimination. For example, universities require that students show identification before entering sporting events.

Governments may make it illegal to resell tickets or products. In Boston, Red Sox baseball tickets can only be resold legally to the team.

The three basic forms of price discrimination are first, second and third degree price discrimination. In first degree price discrimination the company charges the maximum price each customer is willing to pay.

The maximum price a consumer is willing to pay for a unit of the good is the reservation price. Thus for each unit the seller tries to set the price equal to the consumer's reservation price.

Sellers tend to rely on secondary information such as where a person lives postal codes ; for example, catalog retailers can use mail high-priced catalogs to high-income postal codes.

For example, an accountant who has prepared a consumer's tax return has information that can be used to charge customers based on an estimate of their ability to pay.

In second degree price discrimination or quantity discrimination customers are charged different prices based on how much they buy.

There is a single price schedule for all consumers but the prices vary depending on the quantity of the good bought.

Companies know that consumer's willingness to buy decreases as more units are purchased [ citation needed ]. The task for the seller is to identify these price points and to reduce the price once one is reached in the hope that a reduced price will trigger additional purchases from the consumer.

For example, sell in unit blocks rather than individual units. In third degree price discrimination or multi-market price discrimination [55] the seller divides the consumers into different groups according to their willingness to pay as measured by their price elasticity of demand.

Each group of consumers effectively becomes a separate market with its own demand curve and marginal revenue curve. Airlines charge higher prices to business travelers than to vacation travelers.

The reasoning is that the demand curve for a vacation traveler is relatively elastic while the demand curve for a business traveler is relatively inelastic.

Any determinant of price elasticity of demand can be used to segment markets. For example, seniors have a more elastic demand for movies than do young adults because they generally have more free time.

Thus theaters will offer discount tickets to seniors. The monopolist acquires all the consumer surplus and eliminates practically all the deadweight loss because he is willing to sell to anyone who is willing to pay at least the marginal cost.

That is the monopolist behaving like a perfectly competitive company. Successful price discrimination requires that companies separate consumers according to their willingness to buy.

Determining a customer's willingness to buy a good is difficult. Asking consumers directly is fruitless: consumers don't know, and to the extent they do they are reluctant to share that information with marketers.

The two main methods for determining willingness to buy are observation of personal characteristics and consumer actions.

As noted information about where a person lives postal codes , how the person dresses, what kind of car he or she drives, occupation, and income and spending patterns can be helpful in classifying.

Monopoly, besides, is a great enemy to good management. According to the standard model, in which a monopolist sets a single price for all consumers, the monopolist will sell a lesser quantity of goods at a higher price than would companies by perfect competition.

Because the monopolist ultimately forgoes transactions with consumers who value the product or service more than its price, monopoly pricing creates a deadweight loss referring to potential gains that went neither to the monopolist nor to consumers.

Deadweight loss is the cost to society because the market isn't in equilibrium, it is inefficient. Given the presence of this deadweight loss, the combined surplus or wealth for the monopolist and consumers is necessarily less than the total surplus obtained by consumers by perfect competition.

Where efficiency is defined by the total gains from trade, the monopoly setting is less efficient than perfect competition. It is often argued that monopolies tend to become less efficient and less innovative over time, becoming "complacent", because they do not have to be efficient or innovative to compete in the marketplace.

Sometimes this very loss of psychological efficiency can increase a potential competitor's value enough to overcome market entry barriers, or provide incentive for research and investment into new alternatives.

The theory of contestable markets argues that in some circumstances private monopolies are forced to behave as if there were competition because of the risk of losing their monopoly to new entrants.

This is likely to happen when a market's barriers to entry are low. It might also be because of the availability in the longer term of substitutes in other markets.

For example, a canal monopoly, while worth a great deal during the late 18th century United Kingdom, was worth much less during the late 19th century because of the introduction of railways as a substitute.

Contrary to common misconception , monopolists do not try to sell items for the highest possible price, nor do they try to maximize profit per unit, but rather they try to maximize total profit.

A natural monopoly is an organization that experiences increasing returns to scale over the relevant range of output and relatively high fixed costs.

The relevant range of product demand is where the average cost curve is below the demand curve. Often, a natural monopoly is the outcome of an initial rivalry between several competitors.

An early market entrant that takes advantage of the cost structure and can expand rapidly can exclude smaller companies from entering and can drive or buy out other companies.

A natural monopoly suffers from the same inefficiencies as any other monopoly. Left to its own devices, a profit-seeking natural monopoly will produce where marginal revenue equals marginal costs.

Regulation of natural monopolies is problematic. The most frequently used methods dealing with natural monopolies are government regulations and public ownership.

Government regulation generally consists of regulatory commissions charged with the principal duty of setting prices.

To reduce prices and increase output, regulators often use average cost pricing. By average cost pricing, the price and quantity are determined by the intersection of the average cost curve and the demand curve.

Average-cost pricing is not perfect. Regulators must estimate average costs. Companies have a reduced incentive to lower costs. Regulation of this type has not been limited to natural monopolies.

By setting price equal to the intersection of the demand curve and the average total cost curve, the firm's output is allocatively inefficient as the price is less than the marginal cost which is the output quantity for a perfectly competitive and allocatively efficient market.

In , J. Mill was the first individual to describe monopolies with the adjective "natural". He used it interchangeably with "practical".

At the time, Mill gave the following examples of natural or practical monopolies: gas supply, water supply, roads, canals, and railways.

In his Social Economics , [70] Friedrich von Wieser demonstrated his view of the postal service as a natural monopoly: "In the face of [such] single-unit administration, the principle of competition becomes utterly abortive.

The parallel network of another postal organization, beside the one already functioning, would be economically absurd; enormous amounts of money for plant and management would have to be expended for no purpose whatever.

A government-granted monopoly also called a " de jure monopoly" is a form of coercive monopoly , in which a government grants exclusive privilege to a private individual or company to be the sole provider of a commodity.

Monopoly may be granted explicitly, as when potential competitors are excluded from the market by a specific law , or implicitly, such as when the requirements of an administrative regulation can only be fulfilled by a single market player, or through some other legal or procedural mechanism, such as patents , trademarks , and copyright.

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Hij gebruikte The Landlord's Game als voorbeeld voor monopoly. De bedeltjes uit de armband van zijn vrouw gebruikte hij als speelstukken in de traditionele monopolyversies vindt men nog steeds strijkijzertjes en vingerhoedjes in plaats van gewone pionnen.

Ook Darrow ging naar Parker Brothers, maar ook in zijn spel zagen ze niks. Darrow liet in met hulp van een bevriende drukker spellen drukken en verkopen via een warenhuis in Philadelphia.

Die werden razendsnel verkocht. Een jaar later toonde Parker Brothers toch interesse. In het eerste productiejaar werden meer dan een miljoen exemplaren van het spel verkocht.

De Britse speelgoedfabriek Waddingtons werd datzelfde jaar enthousiast, en zo ging monopoly de hele wereld rond.

Darrow stierf als multimiljonair. In de oorspronkelijke versie werd in het spel met dollars betaald. In de versies die in andere landen werden uitgegeven, werden dat ponden, guldens, franken en andere munteenheden.

In werd een speciale ECU-versie op de markt gebracht. In sommige versies werden de bedragen verhoogd door een aantal nullen toe te voegen. Zo werd in een Nederlandse versie uitgegeven waarin alle bedragen honderd keer zo hoog waren, iets dat door de oude liefhebbers van het spel niet gewaardeerd werd.

Hieronder de straatnamen uit enkele versies van het monopolyspel. Dit zijn de namen uit de oorspronkelijke, bekendste versies.

Enkele straten hebben hun bekendheid vooral aan monopoly te danken. In sommige versies werd de spelling aangepast, en werden ook wel andere straatnamen gekozen.

Er zijn ook versies met plaatsnamen in plaats van straatnamen, allerlei jubileumversies, en moderne versies met andere objecten dan straat- en stationsnamen.

De steden en straatnamen van de klassieke Nederlandse versie verwijzen naar vestigingen van de warenhuisketen Perry, het latere Perry Sport , die het spel vanaf in Nederland verkocht.

Tot het begin van de Tweede Wereldoorlog werd in Nederland de Britse versie van het spel, met straatnamen uit Londen , gebruikt. Monopoly beurseditie is een variant waarbij er geen straten maar bedrijven worden verkocht door middel van aandelen en de kleuren een bepaalde branche vertegenwoordigen, een bijgeleverde computer berekent de beurskoersen en de uit te delen dividenden.

Ook is er een versie met rekenmachine en pinpas. Op deze pas wordt ook het saldo van de speler bijgehouden.

De derde straat van de gele kleurgroep heette in de oorspronkelijke versie Marvin Gardens, een wijk van Atlantic City, New Jersey.

De juiste naam is echter Marven Gardens. Die spelfout werd in latere uitgaven gecorrigeerd, maar de onjuiste naam was inmiddels bij de spelers zo ingeburgerd dat de verandering niet door iedereen gewaardeerd werd.

De Nederlandse naam van dezelfde straat is L Poten. Voor veel spelers, vooral als ze niet uit Den Haag kwamen, was niet duidelijk dat dit de afkorting was van Lange Poten.

Ook bij de huurprijs van die straat ging iets mis. Er is namelijk een duidelijke regelmaat in de huurprijzen, die steeds hoger worden als men het bord rondgaat.

De huur voor onbebouwd zou voor de derde straat van de gele kleurgroep dan 24 eenheden dollars, guldens … moeten zijn, maar in werkelijkheid staat er

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1 Kommentare

  1. Kajind

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