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An extensive alphabetical list follows a survey of theological groups as constructed by the Romans themselves. Certain honorifics and titles could be shared by different gods, divine personifications , demi-gods and divi deified mortals.
Augustus , "the elevated or august one" masculine form is an honorific and title awarded to Octavian in recognition of his unique status, the extraordinary range of his powers, and the apparent divine approval of his principate.
After his death and deification, the title was awarded to each of his successors. It also became a near ubiquitous title or honour for various minor local deities, including the Lares Augusti of local communities, and obscure provincial deities such as the North African Marazgu Augustus.
This extension of an Imperial honorific to major and minor deities of Rome and her provinces is considered a ground-level feature of Imperial cult.
Augusta , the feminine form, is an honorific and title associated with the development and dissemination of Imperial cult as applied to Roman Empresses , whether living, deceased or deified as divae.
The first Augusta was Livia , wife of Octavian , and the title is then shared by various state goddesses including Bona Dea , Ceres , Juno , Minerva , and Ops ; by many minor or local goddesses; and by the female personifications of Imperial virtues such as Pax and Victoria.
The epithet Bonus , "the Good," is used in Imperial ideology with abstract deities such as Bona Fortuna "Good Fortune" , Bona Mens "Good Thinking" or "Sound Mind" , and Bona Spes "Valid Hope," perhaps to be translated as "Optimism".
During the Republic, the epithet may be most prominent with Bona Dea , "the Good Goddess" whose rites were celebrated by women. Bonus Eventus , "Good Outcome", was one of Varro's twelve agricultural deities, and later represented success in general.
From the middle Imperial period, the title Caelestis , "Heavenly" or "Celestial" is attached to several goddesses embodying aspects of a single, supreme Heavenly Goddess.
The Dea Caelestis was identified with the constellation Virgo "The Virgin" , who holds the divine balance of justice.
In the Metamorphoses of Apuleius ,  the protagonist Lucius prays to the Hellenistic Egyptian goddess Isis as Regina Caeli , " Queen of Heaven ", who is said to manifest also as Ceres, "the original nurturing parent"; Heavenly Venus Venus Caelestis ; the "sister of Phoebus ", that is, Diana or Artemis as she is worshipped at Ephesus ; or Proserpina as the triple goddess of the underworld.
Juno Caelestis was the Romanised form of the Carthaginian Tanit. Grammatically, the form Caelestis can also be a masculine word, but the equivalent function for a male deity is usually expressed through syncretization with Caelus , as in Caelus Aeternus Iuppiter, "Jupiter the Eternal Sky.
Invictus "Unconquered, Invincible" was in use as a divine epithet by the early 3rd century BC. In the Imperial period, it expressed the invincibility of deities embraced officially, such as Jupiter, Mars, Hercules , and Sol.
On coins, calendars, and other inscriptions, Mercury, Saturn, Silvanus , Fons , Serapis , Sabazius , Apollo, and the Genius are also found as Invictus.
Cicero considers it a normal epithet for Jupiter, in regard to whom it is probably a synonym for Omnipotens. It is also used in the Mithraic mysteries.
Mater "Mother" was an honorific that respected a goddess's maternal authority and functions, and not necessarily "motherhood" per se.
Early examples included Terra Mater Mother Earth and the Mater Larum Mother of the Lares. Vesta , a goddess of chastity usually conceived of as a virgin, was honored as Mater.
A goddess known as Stata Mater was a compital deity credited with preventing fires in the city. From the middle Imperial era, the reigning Empress becomes Mater castrorum et senatus et patriae , the symbolic Mother of military camps, the senate , and the fatherland.
The Gallic and Germanic cavalry auxilia of the Roman Imperial army regularly set up altars to the "Mothers of the Field" Campestres , from campus , "field," with the title Matres or Matronae.
Gods were called Pater "Father" to signify their preeminence and paternal care, and the filial respect owed to them. Pater was found as an epithet of Dis , Jupiter , Mars , and Liber , among others.
Some Roman literary sources accord the same title to Maia and other goddesses. Roman Gods and Goddesses. Roman Gods and Goddesses - The 'Dei Consentes', the Council of Gods Principle Roman Gods and Goddesses Who are all the Roman gods and what are the Roman gods and goddess names?
Roman Gods: Jupiter, who was also called Jove Jupiter was the king of the Roman gods and of the sky and the heavens. Jupiter was the patron god of the Roman state ruling over laws and social order.
Jupiter was the brother of Vesta, Pluto, Neptune and Ceres. He married his sister Juno and together they had three children; Mars, Juventia and Vulcan.
His symbols were the the aegis a protective shield the oak tree, the eagle, the bull and the thunderbolt.
The largest temple in Rome was dedicated to the god Jupiter and situated on the Capitoline Hill. Roman Gods: Juno Juno was the Queen of the Roman gods and the goddess of the marriage.
She married her brother Jupiter and together they had three children: Mars, Juventia and Vulcan.
Juno is represented by the Romans with a spear in her hand, and sometimes with a patera a shallow dish. Roman Gods: Neptune Neptune was the name of the god of the sea.
He was a son of the Titans, Cronus and Rhea. The brother of Jupiter, Vesta, Pluto and Ceres The Roman god Neptune in his chariot drawn by Hippocamps Horses of the sea Roman Gods: Mars Mars was the Roman god of war and the son of Jupiter and Juno.
As Mars Gradivus, the god of war preceded the Roman armies and led them to victory. The name of Gradivus was one of the gods by whom a general or soldiers might swear an oath to be valorous in battle.
The priests of Mars, the war god, were called the Salii who wore the full war-dress trabea and tunica picta and were was first instituted by Numa Pompilius.
Roman Gods: Venus Venus was the goddess of love and beauty and the daughter of Jupiter and Dione. The name Venus derives from the Latin word 'vanati' meaning "desires, loves, wins".
Venus had many children by her lovers including Cupid, god of love by Mars, the god of war. Saturn was enchained by Jupiter to ensure that his circuits did not get out of control, and to constrain him with the bonds of the stars.
However, at the same time, Saturn also bore many similarities with the Greek goddess Demeter , wherein he was venerated as the god of sowing or seed , agriculture, wealth, generation, and even renewal.
Simply put, the Romans possibly merged the aspects of time and nature, thus leading to the epitomizing of revitalization and regeneration via the entity of Saturn.
And thus he was celebrated in the most famous of Roman festivals — the Saturnalia , during which people took part in general revelry, carnivals, parties, and role-reversals like in the case of masters playfully serving their slaves.
And by the time of the Roman Republic, Jupiter was regarded as the highest of the divine entities who watched over the Romans — and thus was venerated as Jupiter Optimus Maximus , the Best and Greatest.
The high status enjoyed by Jupiter, often perceived as the equivalent of Greek Zeus , was mirrored by the impressive Temple of Jupiter erected on the Capitoline Hill possibly by circa BC.
On the other hand, as we fleetingly mentioned before, Jupiter was also regarded as the patron of politics, oaths, treaties, laws, and possibly even sports — since the chief games of Ludi Romani , were observed in his honor.
Regarded as the wife of Jupiter — the chief among the Roman gods, Juno was thus the queen of the ancient Roman deities, who was given the title of Regina.
In the mythological genealogy, she was also the daughter of Saturn which in turn also made her the sister of Jupiter and the mother of various other Roman gods like Mars , Vulcan , and Juventas.
Now when it comes to her attributes, Juno has been often likened to Hera , the queen of the ancient Greek pantheon of gods.
To that end, the first of foremost role of Juno was that of the protector of the state, and by extension of that role, Juno was also perceived as a deity who presided over all the matters of women, ranging from childbirth to legal statuses.
Interestingly enough, she was often depicted wearing a goatskin while carrying a spear and shield, thus also signifying the possible influence of Athena.
Regarded as the brother of Jupiter , Neptune Neptunus in Latin was the god of both freshwater and the sea in the ancient Roman pantheon.
Suffice it to say, inspired by these later associations, Neptune was often depicted like Poseidon with his characteristic trident, especially in the artworks of North Africa.
During the occasion, when water levels were at their scarcest, people were devoted to the conservation and draining of superficial waters, while ritually participating in drinking spring waters and wine.
Pertaining to this episode, Minerva was also considered as the patron of war, more specifically strategic warfare — though this attribute was possibly a later addition in 2nd century BC, which made Minera the equivalent of the Greek goddess Athena.
However, when it comes to history, most scholars agree that like many Roman gods and goddesses, Minerva had older origins.
This festival, while marking the starting of the campaign season for the Roman army, was known for its four days of gladiatorial contests.
Essentially, Minerva epitomized the aspects of both warfare and its consequences — including possible peace, as opposed to the more direct allusion to war like in the case of Athena.
However, in spite of her more complex attributes, Minerva was depicted as being draped in her simple attire in the form of a chiton an ancient Greek garment , while wearing a helmet and carrying a spear and a shield.
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