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BackgammonThe history of backgammon is long, complicated. very incomplete - and fascinating. The exact origins of the game remain unknown, though. Eine Episode aus der Geschichte des Backgammon. Mark Driver: A History of Backgammon. Chuck Bower: History of Backgammon. Ulrich Schädler: Vom. In the world of backgammon John Crawford and Carol Crawford are synonymous Carol was the first lady ever to win the world championships in the history of.
History Of Backgammon Navigation menu VideoThe history of backgammon DГ¤nische Chips is a Bulgarian variant of Backgammon, played without the doubling cube. The second is that the cubic form is best for rolling; a pyramid tends to stop fast when it hits, and an octahedron or a form with even more faces tends to roll too much. But Online Casino Bonus No Deposit Required did the first versions of backgammon originate? The next major SolitГ¤r Diamant, possibly the biggest in the history of backgammon, occurred around Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.
A small group of top players emerge, including Tim Holland, Oswald Jacoby, John Crawford, and Barclay and Walter Cooke. Holland wins the second World Championship the following year.
After a two-year hiatus, the tournament is held again in and Holland wins for the third time. The book is much more advanced than books from the earlier period and quickly becomes the de facto standard text.
Hefner promotes the game in Playboy , showing celebrities and pros chouetting at the Playboy Mansion with nude beauties gazing on adoringly.
Young men everywhere take notice. The Mayfair Club on 57th Street and the Racquet and Tennis Club on 54th become the center of the big chouette action.
Some budding stars begin to emerge, including Paul Magriel, Stan Tomchin, Chuck Papazian, and Mike Senkiewicz, all former chess players.
A group of dominant European players emerge led by Joe Dwek, and including Philip Martyn, Lewis Deyong, and Kumars Motakhasses. Lots of new clubs open up in the US and Europe and a professional class of young touring pros starts to develop.
More articles start to appear in national magazines. Tim Holland heads the list, followed by Barclay and Walter Cooke, Paul Magriel, and Claude Beer.
Murray, in A History of Board Games Other Than Chess , says that backgammon, the modern form of tables, was invented in England early in the seventeenth century.
The two differences between backgammon and tables that Murray lists are slight but very interesting: in backgammon 1 doublets are now played twice, and 2 the triple game, or backgammon, is introduced and defined thus: "when the winner bears all his men before his opponent has carried all his men to his home or bearing table".
This is more like our gammon than our triple game, but it's getting there! Tables was still the more common name used throughout the seventeenth century.
As late as September 21, , Samuel Pepys wrote in his diary: "I got to my Lord Bruncker's before night, and there I sat and supped with him and his mistresses Thence, after losing a crowne betting at Tables, we walked home".
Thirteen years later Samuel Butler mentioned backgammon in his satirical epic poem Hudibras , which may be the first use of the word in English literature.
Their opponent must either accept "take" the doubled stakes or resign "drop" the game immediately. Whenever a player accepts doubled stakes, the cube is placed on their side of the board with the corresponding power of two facing upward, to indicate that the right to re-double belongs exclusively to that player.
For instance, if the cube showed the number 2 and a player wanted to redouble the stakes to put it at 4, the opponent choosing to drop the redouble would lose two, or twice the original stake.
There is no limit on the number of redoubles. Although 64 is the highest number depicted on the doubling cube, the stakes may rise to , , and so on.
In money games, a player is often permitted to "beaver" when offered the cube, doubling the value of the game again, while retaining possession of the cube.
A variant of the doubling cube "beaver" is the "raccoon". Players who doubled their opponent, seeing the opponent beaver the cube, may in turn then double the stakes once again "raccoon" as part of that cube phase before any dice are rolled.
The opponent retains the doubling cube. An example of a "raccoon" is the following: White doubles Black to 2 points, Black accepts then beavers the cube to 4 points; White, confident of a win, raccoons the cube to 8 points, while Black retains the cube.
Such a move adds greatly to the risk of having to face the doubling cube coming back at 8 times its original value when first doubling the opponent offered at 2 points, counter offered at 16 points should the luck of the dice change.
Some players may opt to invoke the "Murphy rule" or the "automatic double rule". If both opponents roll the same opening number, the doubling cube is incremented on each occasion yet remains in the middle of the board, available to either player.
The Murphy rule may be invoked with a maximum number of automatic doubles allowed and that limit is agreed to prior to a game or match commencing.
When a player decides to double the opponent, the value is then a double of whatever face value is shown e. The Murphy rule is not an official rule in backgammon and is rarely, if ever, seen in use at officially sanctioned tournaments.
The "Jacoby rule", named after Oswald Jacoby , allows gammons and backgammons to count for their respective double and triple values only if the cube has already been offered and accepted.
This encourages a player with a large lead to double, possibly ending the game, rather than to play it to conclusion hoping for a gammon or backgammon.
The Jacoby rule is widely used in money play but is not used in match play. The "Crawford rule", named after John R. Crawford , is designed to make match play more equitable for the player in the lead.
If a player is one point away from winning a match, that player's opponent will always want to double as early as possible in order to catch up.
Whether the game is worth one point or two, the trailing player must win to continue the match. To balance the situation, the Crawford rule requires that when a player first reaches a score one point short of winning, neither player may use the doubling cube for the following game, called the "Crawford game".
After the Crawford game, normal use of the doubling cube resumes. The Crawford rule is routinely used in tournament match play.
If the Crawford rule is in effect, then another option is the "Holland rule", named after Tim Holland , which stipulates that after the Crawford game, a player cannot double until after at least two rolls have been played by each side.
It was common in tournament play in the s, but is now rarely used. There are many variants of standard backgammon rules.
Some are played primarily throughout one geographic region, and others add new tactical elements to the game. Variants commonly alter the starting position, restrict certain moves, or assign special value to certain dice rolls, but in some geographic regions even the rules and directions of the checkers' movement change, rendering the game fundamentally different.
Acey-deucey is a variant of backgammon in which players start with no checkers on the board, and must bear them on at the beginning of the game.
The roll of is given special consideration, allowing the player, after moving the 1 and the 2, to select any desired doubles move.
A player also receives an extra turn after a roll of or of doubles. Hypergammon is a variant of backgammon in which players have only three checkers on the board, starting with one each on the 24, 23 and 22 points.
The game has been strongly solved , meaning that exact equities are available for all 32 million possible positions.
Nard is a traditional variant from Persia in which basic rules are almost the same except that even a single piece is "safe". All 15 pieces start on the 24th wedge.
Nackgammon is a variant of backgammon invented by Nick "Nack" Ballard  in which players start with one less checker on the 6-point and midpoint and two checkers on the point.
Russian backgammon is a variant described in as: " In this variant, doubles are more powerful: four moves are played as in standard backgammon, followed by four moves according to the difference of the dice value from 7, and then the player has another turn with the caveat that the turn ends if any portion of it cannot be completed.
Gul bara and Tapa are also variants of the game popular in southeastern Europe and Turkey. The play will iterate among Backgammon, Gul Bara, and Tapa until one of the players reaches a score of 7 or 5.
Coan ki is an ancient Chinese board game that is very similar. Plakoto , Fevga and Portes are three versions of backgammon played in Greece. Together, the three are referred to as Tavli.
Misere backgammon to lose is a variant of backgammon in which the objective is to lose the game. Tabla is a Bulgarian variant of Backgammon, played without the doubling cube.
Other minor variants to the standard game are common among casual players in certain regions. For instance, only allowing a maximum of five checkers on any point Britain  or disallowing "hit-and-run" in the home board Middle East.
Backgammon has an established opening theory , although it is less detailed than that of chess. The tree of positions expands rapidly because of the number of possible dice rolls and the moves available on each turn.
Recent computer analysis has offered more insight on opening plays, but the midgame is reached quickly. After the opening, backgammon players frequently rely on some established general strategies, combining and switching among them to adapt to the changing conditions of a game.
A blot has the highest probability of being hit when it is 6 points away from an opponent's checker see picture. Strategies can derive from that.
The most direct one is simply to avoid being hit, trapped, or held in a stand-off. A "running game" describes a strategy of moving as quickly as possible around the board, and is most successful when a player is already ahead in the race.
As the game progresses, this player may gain an advantage by hitting an opponent's blot from the anchor, or by rolling large doubles that allow the checkers to escape into a running game.
The "priming game" involves building a wall of checkers, called a prime, covering a number of consecutive points.
This obstructs opposing checkers that are behind the prime. A checker trapped behind a six-point prime cannot escape until the prime is broken.
Because the opponent has difficulty re-entering from the bar or escaping, a player can quickly gain a running advantage and win the game, often with a gammon.
A "backgame" is a strategy that involves holding two or more anchors in an opponent's home board while being substantially behind in the race.
The backgame is generally used only to salvage a game wherein a player is already significantly behind. Using a backgame as an initial strategy is usually unsuccessful.
For example, players may position all of their blots in such a way that the opponent must roll a 2 in order to hit any of them, reducing the probability of being hit more than once.
Many positions require a measurement of a player's standing in the race, for example, in making a doubling cube decision, or in determining whether to run home and begin bearing off.
The minimum total of pips needed to move a player's checkers around and off the board is called the "pip count".
The difference between the two players' pip counts is frequently used as a measure of the leader's racing advantage. Players often use mental calculation techniques to determine pip counts in live play.
Backgammon is played in two principal variations, "money" and "match" play. Money play means that every point counts evenly and every game stands alone, whether money is actually being wagered or not.
The format has a significant effect on strategy. In the s, British archaeologist Sir Leonard Woolley was in modern-day Iraq excavating Ur of the Chaldees—the city described as the birthplace of Abraham in the Hebrew Bible.
Not long after, in another part of ancient Mesopotamia, archaeologists found another board, similar to those discovered by Woolley. This one had stacks of pieces under the board: dice as well as player pieces in two colors.
Skipping ahead a few thousand years, it looks like Egyptian Pharaohs had another game that may have been a precursor to modern backgammon.
The Egyptians even had a mechanical dice box that would roll the dice for you—something later replicated by the Greeks and Romans—to stop cheaters.
The game is similar enough to backgammon to be in the running as a possible ancestor. Both also require that you first move all your men into your home sector before you can get them off the board.
Finally, both pachisi and backgammon have solitary pieces as very weak, and multiple pieces as strong. Elsewhere in Asia, countries like China, Japan, Korea, and Thailand also had their own similar games.
Of course, the Greeks made their own version of the game. Sophocles claimed that their version was invented by Palamedes because he was bored to tears during the siege of Troy.
The Latin word Tabula refers to any board game, but was often used to mean the most popular Roman board game of Alea.
The Emperor Claudius is said to have been so fond of the game he had a board incorporated into his carriage so he could play wherever he went.
He is also known to have written on the subject of Backgammon but none of his writings have survived. In Asia, the game was first noted as Nard prior to at least AD in South West Asia or Persia Modern day Iran, Iraq and Syria and has constantly remained an extremely popular game in the region to this day.
Also known as Nardshir , Nardeeshir , and Nard-i-shir. Nard was the Persian name for wood productland is thought to refer to the wooden board.
The game was sometimes also called "Takhteh Nard" which translates as "battle on wood". Chinese history relates that T'Shu-P'u , the Chinese name for Nard , was first developed in Western India and was imported into China during the Wei dynasty - AD becoming very popular from to AD.
In Japan the game was known as Sugoroko. The Japanese declared it illegal during the reign of Empress Jito - AD due to problems arising from gambling which have accompanied the game wherever it has been played.